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Pipenv Getting Started: Managing Virtual Environments and PyPI Packages using Pipenv

Pipenv Getting Started: Managing Virtual Environments and PyPI Packages using Pipenv

July 01 2020

Tutorial for downloading packages from PyPI. Teaches how to install Pipenv to create and manage virtualenvs and download packages.

Who is this guide for

  • This is for brand new Python users, including coding class students who want a simple and to-the-point guide on getting Pipenv working on their system.

  • This guide assumes you already have some fundamental Python and Bash knowledge.

  • This guide does not support Windows. It assumes you use either macOS or Ubuntu GNU/Linux.

This was original created for Kickstart Coding, the affordable, inclusive, and intensive coding course teaching cutting-edge Python / Django and JavaScript / React web development in Oakland, CA. Learn more and enroll here.

What is Pipenv?

Pipenv is a tool for downloading software packages from PyPI (the website and repository). It downloads them into directories known as a virtualenv. It is best practice to make one of these for each project you work on, to keep the different downloads separate. This is because each project might have different needs from PyPI.

Key Terms

  • package - A (usually) free/open source library of programming code, that others have published to the internet for you to download and use.

  • PyPI - A giant repository of free, open source libraries that various people around the world have written, for use in your code.

  • Pipenv - A command-line tool for downloading software (like git, or brew, or apt). One of several tools available for downloading and using packages from PyPI. This guide uses it since it requires the fewest steps for beginners.

  • virtualenv - The place on your computer where third party libraries go when downloaded from PyPI. Pipenv automatically creates one of these for each project you are working on. This helps keep your projects working independently of each other, no matter what each one might need downloaded to work.

(Less) Key Terms

  • Pipfile - Pipenv keeps track of what you have downloaded using it in a file called Pipfile. This is in case you forget, or in case a team-member needs to download the same packages as you.

  • pip (or pip3) -- Another (older) tool used to download packages from PyPI. Pipenv (essentially) uses this "behind the scenes".

  • dependencies -- The list of packages (e.g. code libraries, modules etc) that you have to download to get a given application to run. Pipenv records the dependencies of each project in a file called "Pipfile" (mentioned above).

Guide

Now that you know a little about Pipenv, it's time to install it on your system and get used to using it.

Installing Pipenv

Ubuntu Linux users, run the following command:

sudo apt-get install python3-pip -y && sudo pip3 install pipenv

macOS users, run the following command:

brew install pipenv

Using Pipenv

Broad concepts:

  • Whenever you create a new Python project, you will want to create a new virtualenv for it

  • Whenever you go back to working on a Python project, you will have to "enter" the virtualenv for it

  • In summary: You will create a virtualenv once (typically for each project you are working on), but you may enter it many times, every time you are working on it.

Creating a new virtualenv

Every time you want to do a new Python project, you will need to create a new virtualenv for it. These steps are to create a "pipenv project directory". Much like a "git-enabled directory" is signified by a hidden .git file (revealed with ls -a), a "pipenv project directory" will be signified with a Pipfile.

  1. In a terminal, create a new directory for this activity. It could be

anywhere. Change into the directory for the subsequent steps. For example:

mkdir pipenv_test
cd pipenv_test
  1. Create a Pipfile along with a new pipenv "virtualenv" as follows:
pipenv --python 3

Entering a virtualenv

Whenever you go back to working on a Python project, you will have to activate (i.e. "enter") the virtualenv for it.

To activate the "virtualenv" so that you can start installing PyPI packages, go to the directory where you crated it if you aren't there already, and type in:

pipenv shell

You know you have a virtualenv activated when your bash prompt has the name of the virtualenv in parenthesis. If you see that, you know that all subsequent uses of Python and pipenv will be using the right versions and directories of everything.

Trying out Pipenv

Once you have "activated" your virtualenv, it's time to try out pipenv. In this tutorial, we'll install and test a package called silly.

To install silly:

pipenv install silly

Using silly

Try using silly. You can use it either from the interactive prompt Python prompt (remember, just type "python3" then hit enter), or by creating a new Python code file that includes the code you want to use, as you would any other Python program. Test it out with the following:

import silly
silly.thing()
silly.paragraph()

Try out all the features of silly!

Silly was just an example. Read more about the silly package at: https://github.com/classam/silly

Extra challenges

  1. Look through PyPI for another package

  2. Try installing it with pipenv

  3. Read its documentation and see if you can get it working

Pipenv Tips

  • You know you are inside a virtualenv when there are parenthesis next to your bash prompt.

  • Don't ever run pipenv commands directly from your home directory! This could cause creating a virtualenv that is associated with your home directory, which is very confusing. Instead, you should only run them within your project directories, e.g., next to the README.md if you have a GitHub cloned repo, or next to the manage.py if you are using Django or another Python web framework.

  • Closing a terminal will "exit" the virtualenv. This also means if you get your bash terminal in some weird state and it's not letting you enter (or exit the virtualenv with deactivate), the most sure-proof way of "getting out" is simply closing your terminal window and starting a new window!

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